Carolee J. Winstein, PhD, PT, FAPTA

Carolie Winstein Web Photo 2012

(323) 442-2903



Motor Behavior and Neurorehabilitation

Mailing Address:

1540 Alcazar St., CHP 155, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9006

Current Research:

Professional Interests
I am Professor of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy and faculty in the interdisciplinary Neuroscience Graduate Program. I direct an interdisciplinary research program focused on understanding rehabilitation outcomes at the systems level and promoting optimal recovery of goal-directed movement behaviors that emerge from a dynamic brain-behavior system in brain-damaged conditions. My research program has been funded variously through NIH, NIDRR (recently moved from DoE to HHS) and the Foundation for Physical Therapy consistently for over 20 years. I was recently appointed to the NIH Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation study section (beginning July 1st, 2015).

I have been an active member of the Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Graduate Program since 1998 and hold a joint appointment in the Department of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine. I serve on the editorial board of the journal Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair and currently serve as the vice-president for the American Society of Neurorehabilitation. I have over 30 years of multidisciplinary collaborative research experience with a focus on neuroimaging and rehabilitation, clinical trials and basic mechanisms of action in rehabilitation, and rehabilitation engineering research. I have (co) authored more than 100 research papers including chapters, proceedings and commentaries, and mentored over a dozen doctoral students and postdoctoral scholars from diverse backgrounds including engineering, neuroscience, and rehabilitation.

  • Waisman Ctr., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, Postdoctoral Fellow, Behavioral Neuroscience, 1989
  • Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA, Ph.D., Kinesiology, 1988
  • Univ. of Southern Calif., Los Angeles, CA, M.S., Physical Therapy, 1984
  • Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA, B.S./Certif. in Phys. Ther Physical Therapy, 1973
  • Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA, B.A., Kinesiology & Psychology, 1972
Selected Publications


  • Wang X, Liu BJ, Martinez C, Zhang X, Winstein CJ (2015). Development of a novel imaging informatics-based system with an intelligent workflow engine (IWEIS) to support imaging-based clinical trials. Comp Biol and Med,
  • Levy RM Harvey RL, Kissela BM, Winstein CJ, Lutsep HL, Parrish TB, Cramer SC, Venkatesan L. (2015). Epidural electrical stimulation for stroke rehabilitation: Results of the prospective, multicenter, randomized, single-blinded Everest Trial. Neurorehabilitation Neural Repair, Mar 6. pii:1545968315575613. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 25748452
  • Winstein C, Requejo P. Innovative technologies for rehabilitation and health promotion: what is the evidence? (2015) Phys Ther Mar;95(3):294-8. doi: 10.2522/ptj.2015.95.2.294. PMID: 25734191
  • Sugg, K., Müller, S., Winstein, C., Hathorn, D., & Dempsey, A. R. (2015). Does action observation training with immediate physical practice improve hemiparetic upper limb function in chronic stroke? Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair, Jan 22. pii: 1545968314565512. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25613984.
  • Winstein C, Lewthwaite R, Blanton SR, Wolf LB, Wishart L. (2014) Infusing motor learning research into neurorehabilitation practice: a historical perspective with case exemplar from the accelerated skill acquisition program. J Neurol Phys Ther. 2014 Jul;38(3):190-200.
  • Duff, S. V., He, J., Nelsen, M. A.,Lane, C. J., Rowe, V. T.,Wolf, S. L.,Dromerick A.W.,Winstein, C. J.(2014).Interrater Reliability of the Wolf Motor FunctionTest-Functional Ability Scale:  Why ItMatters. Neurorehabilitationand Neural Repair.doi:10.1177/1545968314553030
  • Goh, H.-T., Gordon, J., Sullivan, K.J.,  Winstein,C. J. (2014). Evaluation of attentional demands duringmotor learning: validity of a dual-task probeparadigm. Journal ofMotorBehavior46(2).doi:10.1080/00222895.2013.868337
  • Stewart, J. C., Gordon, J., Winstein, C.J. (2014). Control of reach extent with the pareticand nonparetic arms after unilateral sensorimotor strokeII:planning and adjustments to control movementdistance. Experimental BrainResearch232(11),3431-3443.doi:10.1007/s00221-014-4025-7
  • Stewart, J. C., Gordon, J., Winstein, C.J. (2014). Control of reach extent with the paretic andnonparetic arms after unilateral sensorimotor stroke:kinematicdifferences based on side of braindamage. Experimental BrainResearch232(7),2407-2419.doi:10.1007/s00221-014-3938-5
  • Wade, E., Chen, C.,  Winstein,C. J.(2014). Spectral analyses of wrist motion in individualspoststroke:the development of a performance measure with promiseforunsupervised settings. Neurorehabilitation andNeuralRepair28(2),169-178.doi:10.1177/1545968313505911
  • Chen, S., Lewthwaite, R.,Schweighofer, N., Winstein, C. J. (2013).Discriminantvalidity of a new measure of self-efficacy for reachingmovements after stroke-induced hemiparesis. Journal ofHandTherapy : Official Journal of the American Society ofHandTherapists26(2), 116-122; quiz123.doi:10.1016/j.jht.2012.09.002
  • Garrison, K. A., Aziz-Zadeh, L.,Wong, S. W., Liew,S.-L., Winstein, C. J. (2013).Modulatingthe motor system by action observation afterstroke. Stroke; a Journal ofCerebralCirculation44(8),2247-2253.doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.001105
  • Rose, D. K., Winstein, C. J.(2013).Temporal coupling is more robust than spatial coupling: aninvestigation of interlimb coordination afterstroke. Journal of MotorBehavior45(4),313-324.doi:10.1080/00222895.2013.798250
  • Stewart, J. C., Gordon, J., Winstein, C.J. (2013). Planning and adjustments for the control ofreach extent in a virtual environment.Journal ofNeuroengineering andRehabilitation10.doi:10.1186/1743-0003-10-27
  •  Winstein, C. J., Wolf, S.L.,Dromerick, A. W., Lane, C. J., Nelsen, M. A., Lewthwaite, R.,Blanton S., Scott C., Reiss A., Cen S.Y., Holley R., Azen, S. P.(2013). Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm RehabilitationEvaluation (ICARE): a randomized controlled trialprotocol.BMCNeurology13.doi:10.1186/1471-2377-13-5
  • Han, C. E., Kim, S., Chen, S., Lai,Y.-H., Lee, J.-Y., Osu,R., Winstein C.J.,Schweighofer, N. (2013).Quantifying arm nonuse in individualspoststroke. Neurorehabilitation andNeuralRepair27(5),439-447.doi:10.1177/1545968312471904
  •  WinsteinCJ, Requejo PS,Zelinski EM, Mulroy SJ, Crimmins EM.(2012). A transformativesubfield in rehabilitation science at thenexus of newtechnologies, aging and disability. FrontiersinPsychology, Sept, 3: Article 340
  • Goh HT, Sullivan KJ, Gordon J, WulfG, WinsteinCJ. (2012). Dual-task practiceenhances motor learning: apreliminary investigation. ExpBrain Res. Aug 12.
  • Tan C, Tretriluxana J, Pitsch E, RunnarongN, WinsteinCJ. (2012). Anticipatory planningof functionalreach-to-grasp: A pilotstudy. Neurorehabilitation and NeuralRepair. Mar20
  • Hidaka Y, Han CE, Wolf SL, WinsteinCJ,Schweighofer N. (2012). Use it and improve it or loseit:Interactions between arm function and use in humanspost-stroke.PLoS Comput Biol 8(2):e1002343.doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002343
  • Chen S, Wolf SL, Zhang Q, ThompsonPA, WinsteinC., (2012). The minimaldetectable change of the ActualAmount of Use Test and the MotorActivity Log: The EXCITE Trial.Neurorehabilitation and NeuralRepair. Jan 24, [Epub aheadof print]
  • Kantak SS, Winstein CJ.(2012).Learning-performance distinction and memory processes formotorskills: A focused review and perspective. Behav BrainRes,Mar 1;228(1):219-31.
  • Kantak S, Sullivan KA, Fisher BE, KnowltonB, WinsteinC. (2011). Transfer of motorlearning engages specificneural substrates during motor memoryconsolidation dependent onthe practice structure. Journalof Motor Behavior.Nov;43(6):499-507
  • Wade E, Winstein CJ. (2011). Virtualrealityand robotics for stroke rehabilitation: Where do we go fromhere?Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation; 18(6):685-700.
  • Yeh S-C, McLaughlin M, Nam Y, Sanders S, Chang C, KennedyB,Flynn S, Lange B, Li L, Chen S, WhitfordM, WinsteinC, Jung Y, Rizzo A. (2011).Emotions andtelerehabilitation: Pilot clinical trials forvirtualtelerehabilitation applications using haptic device and itsimpacton post stroke patients' mood andmotivation. Lecture Notes inComputer Science, vol.6774:119-128, Springer Heidelberg.
  • Mulroy S, Winstein C, Kulig K, BeneckG.J,Fowler E, DeMuth S, Sullivan K, Brown D, Christianne J Lane.(2011)Secondary Mediation and Regression Analyses of thePTClinResNetDatabase:  Determining Causal Relationships amongOutcomesacross International Classification of Function Levels forFourPhysical Therapist Intervention Trials. PhysicalTherapy.91(12): 1766-1789
  • Schweighofer N, Lee J-Y, Goh H-T, Choi Y, Kim S, StewartJ,Lewthwaite R, Winstein CJ. (2011).Mechanisms ofthe contextual interference effect in individualspost-stroke.J. Neurophysiol. 106:2632-2641
  • Rizzo A, Requejo P, Winstein CJ, LangeB,Ragusa G, Merians A, Patton J, Banerjee P, Aisen M.(2011). Virtualrealityapplications for addressing the needs of those agingwithdisability. Stud Health TechnolInform.163:510-6.
  • Mulroy SJ, Thompson L, Kemp B, Hatchett PP, Newsam CJ,LupoldDG, Haubert LL, Eberly V, Ge TT, AzenSP, WinsteinCJ, Gordon J (2011); for thePhysical Therapy ClinicalResearch Network (PTClinResNet). StrengtheningandOptimal Movements for Painful Shoulders (STOMPS) in ChronicSpinalCord Injury: A Randomized ControlledTrial. PhysTher. 2011 Mar;91(3):305-324. Epub2011 Feb 3.
  • Kantak SS, Fisher BE, Sullivan KJand WinsteinCJ. (2010) Effects of differentdoses of low frequencyrTMS on motor corticospinal excitability.Journal of Neurology andNeurophysiology - Open Access;www.omicsonline.orgdoi:10.4172/2155-9562.Volume 1• Issue1•1000102
  • Wolf SL, Thompson PA, Winstein CJ, MillerJP,Blanton SR, Nichols-Larsen DS, Morris DM, Uswatte G, Taub E,LightKE, Sawaki L. (2010). The EXCITE stroke trial: comparing earlyanddelayed constraint-induced movementtherapy. Stroke,10:2309-15.
  • Kantak SS, Sullivan KJ, Fisher BE, Knowlton BJ,WinsteinCJ (2010). Neural substrates of motormemoryconsolidation depend on practicestructure. NatureNeuroscience, published online July10,2010;doi:10.1038/nn.2596
  • Woodbury M, Velozo CA, Thompson PA, Light K, Uswatte G, TaubE,Winstein CJ, Morris D, Blanton S,Nichols-LarsenDS, Wolf SL. (2010). Measurement structure of theWolf MotorFunction Test: Implications for motor controltheory.Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 9: 791-801.
  • Lin CH, Winstein CJ, Fisher BE, Wu AD.(2010)NeuralCorrelatesof the Contextual Interference Effect in Motor Learning:ATranscranial Magnetic Stimulation Investigation. JMotBehav. Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Lange BS, Requejo P, Flynn SM, Rizzo AA, Valero-Cuevas FJ,BakerL, Winstein C (2010). Thepotential ofvirtual reality and gaming to assist successful agingwithdisability. Phys Med Rehabil Clin NAm.May;21(2):339-56.
  • Garrison KA, Winstein CJ, Aziz-Zadeh L(2010)Themirrorneuron system: a neural substrate for methods instrokerehabilitation. Neurorehabil NeuralRepair.Jun;24(5):404-12.
  • Fowler EG, Knutson LM, Demuth SK, Siebert KL, Simms VD, SugiMH,Souza RB, Karim R, Azen SP (2010). Pediatricenduranceand limb strengthening (PEDALS) for children withcerebral palsyusing stationary cycling: a randomized controlledtrial.;Physical Therapy Clinical ResearchNetwork(PTClinResNet). Phys Therapy. Mar;90(3):367-81. Epub 2010Jan 21.
  • Winstein CJ (2009). Thebest we canbe is yet to come. Phys Therapy. 2009Nov;89(11):1236-49.
  • Schweighofer N, Han C, Wolf SL, ArbibM, WinsteinCJ. (2009). Understanding thefunctional threshold:Predictions from a Computational Model andSupporting Data from theExtremity Constraint-Induced TherapyEvaluation (EXCITE) Trial.Physical Therapy, 89(12),1327-36.
  • Kulig K, Beneck GJ, Selkowitz DM, Popovich JM Jr., GeTT,Flanagan SP, Poppert EM, Yamada K, Powers CM, AzenS,Winstein CJ, Gordon J, Samudrala S, ChenTC,Shamie N, Khoo L, Spoonamore MJ, Wang JC and PhysicalTherapyClinical Research Network (PTClinResNet). (2009). The effectof anintensive, progressive exercise program on functionalperformancein patients post single-level lumbarmicrodiscectomy. PhysicalTherapy, 89:1145-1157.
  • Ojha H, Kern R, Lin C-H, Winstein CJ.(2009).Age affects the attentional demands of stair ambulation:Evidencefrom a dual-task approach. Physical Therapy,89:1080-8.
  • Tretriluxana J, Gordon J, FisherBE, WinsteinCJ (2009). Hemispherespecific impairments inreach-to-grasp control after stroke: Effectsof object size.Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 23:679-91.
  • Matarić M, Tapus A, Winstein C, ErikssonJ.(2009).Socially assistive robotics for stroke and mildTBIrehabilitation. Stud HealthTechnolInform.145:249-62.
  • Lin CH, Fisher BE, Wu AD, Ko YA, LeeLY, WinsteinCJ. (2009) Neural correlate ofthe contextual interferenceeffect in motor learning: a kinematicanalysis. J MotBehav. 41:232-42
  • Chen SY, Winstein CJ. (2009). Asystematicreview of voluntary arm recovery in hemiparteic stroke:criticalpredictors for meaningful outcomes using theinternationalclassification of functioning, disability, andhealth. J.Neurol Phys Ther, 33(1): 2-13.
  • Harvey RL, Winstein CJ; EverestTrial Group.(2009). Design for the Everest randomized trial ofcorticalstimulation and rehabilitation for arm function followingstroke.Neurorehabil Neural Repair, Jan; 23(1):32-44.
  • Lin CH, Fisher BE, Winstein CJ, Wu AD,GordonJ. (2008) Contextual interference effect: elaborativeprocessing orforgetting-reconstruction? A post hoc analysis oftranscranialmagnetic stimulation-induced effects on motorlearning. J MotorBehavior, 40(6):578-86
  • Park SW, Wolf SL, Blanton S, WinsteinC,Nichols-Larsen DS. (2008). The EXCITE trial: Predictingaclinically meaningful motor activity logoutcome.Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 22(5):486-93.
  • Tretriluxana J, Gordon J, Winstein CJ.(2008).Manual asymmetries in grasp pre-shaping andtransport-graspcoordination. Experimental Brain Res.188(2): 305-15
  • Lin CH, Fisher B, Winstein CJ, Wu AD,Gordon J(2008). Contextual interference effect:elaborative-processing orforgetting-reconstruction? A post-hocanalysis of transcranialmagnetic stimulation-induced effects onmotor learning. Journalof Motor Behavior, 40(6):578-86
  • Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller PJ, ThompsonPA,Taub E, Uswatte G, Morris D, Blanton S, Nichols-Larsen D, ClarkPC.(2008, available online 12/17/07). Retention of upper limbfunctionin stroke survivors who have received constraint-inducedmovementtherapy: the EXCITE randomized trial. TheLancetNeurology, 7(1): 33-40.
  • Onla-or P. & Winstein, CJ.(2008).Determining the optimal challenge point for motor skilllearning inadults with moderately severe Parkinson'sDisease.Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 22(4):385-95.
  • Winstein C, Pate P, Ge T, Ervin C, BaurleyJ,Sullivan KJ, Underwood SJ, Fowler EG, Mulroy S, Brown DA, KuligK,Gordon J, Azen SP & Physical Therapy Clinical ResearchNetwork.(2008) The Physical Therapy Clinical ResearchNetwork(PTClinResNet):  Methods, efficacy and benefits ofarehabilitation research network.  American JournalofPhysical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 87(11): 937-50
  • Sullivan KJ, Brown DA, Klassen T, Mulroy S, Ge T, AzenSP,Winstein CJ (2007). Effectsoftask-specific locomotor and strength training in adults whowereambulatory after stroke: results of the STEPS randomizedclinicaltrial.; Physical Therapy Clinical ResearchNetwork(PTClinResNet). Phys Therapy.2007Dec;87(12):1580-602.
  • Wolf SL, Newton H, Maddy D, Blanton S, Zhang Q,WinsteinCJ, Morris DM, Light K. (2007). TheExcite Trial:relationship of intensity of constraint inducedmovement therapy toimprovement in the Wolf motor function test.Restor NeurolNeurosci., 25(5-6):549-62.
  • Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller JP,Blanton S,Clark PC, Nichols-Larsen D (2007). Looking in the rearview mirrorwhen conversing with back seat drivers: The EXCITE trialrevisited.Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 21:379-387.
  • Kaplon R., Prettyman M., Kushi C. WinsteinC.J(2007). Six hours in the laboratory? A quantificationof practicetime during Constraint-Induced Therapy(CIT). Clin Rehab.21(10): 950-958.
  • Winstein, CJ., Bentzen, KR., Boyd,L.,Schneider, LS. (2007). Does Donepezil, a cholinesteraseinhibitor,benefit declarative and non-declarative processes in mildtomoderate Alzheimer's disease? Current AlzheimerResearch,43: 273-6
  • Lin CH, Sullivan KJ, Wu AD, KantakS, WinsteinCJ. (2007). Effect of taskpractice order on motor skilllearning in adults with ParkinsonDisease: A pilot study. PhysTher., 87(9):1120-31
  • Stewart JC, Yeh SC, Jung Y, Yoon H, Whitford M, Chen SY, LiL,McLaughlin M, Rizzo A, Winstein CJ.(2007).Intervention to enhance skilled arm and hand movementsafterstroke: A feasibility study using a new virtual realitysystem.J Neuroengineering Rehabil., 4: 21.
  • Boyd LA, Quaney BM, Pohl PS, WinsteinCJ(2007). Learning implicitly: effects of task andseverity afterstroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair,21(5):444-54.
  • Dong Y, Winstein CJ, Albistegui-DuBoisR,Dobkin BH. (2007). Evolution of fMRI activation in theperilesionalprimary motor cortex and cerebellum withrehabilitationtraining-related motor gains after stroke: A pilotstudy.Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 21:412-28. Epub 2007Mar16
  • Koski L., Lin C-H, Wu A, Winstein CJ.(2007).Reliability of intracortical and corticomotorexcitabilityestimates obtained from the upper extremities inchronic stroke.Neuroscience Research, 58(1):19-31.
  • Mataric MJ, ErikssonJ,Feil-Seifer DJ, Winstein CJ. (2007).Sociallyassistive robotics for post-strokerehabilitation. JNeuroEngineering and Rehab,4:5doi:10.1186/1743-0003-4-5
  • Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller JP, TaubE,Uswatte G, Morris D, Giuliani C, Light K, Nichols-Larsen D.(2006).Effect of Constraint Induced Movement Therapy on UpperExtremityFunction 3-9 Months after Stroke: The EXCITE RandomizedClinicalTrial. JAMA, 296: 2095-2104
  • Uswatte G, Giuliani C, Winstein C,Zerinque A,Hobbs L, Wolf SL. (2006) Validity of accelerometry formonitoringreal-world arm activity in patients with subacute stroke:Evidencefrom the extremity constraint-induced therapy evaluationtrial.Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 87:1340-5
  • Boyd LA, Winstein CJ. (2006).Explicitinformation interferes with implicit motor learning ofbothdiscrete and continuous movement tasks afterstroke. JNPT,30: 46-57.
  • Dong Y, Dobkin BH, Cen SY, Wu AD, WinsteinCJ.(2006) Motor cortex activation during treatment maypredicttherapeutic gains in paretic hand function afterstroke.Stroke, 37:1552-1555
  • Fisher BE, Boyd L, WinsteinCJ (2006).Contralateral cerebellar damage impairsimperative planning but notupdating of aimed arm movements inhumans. Exp Brain Res,174, 453-66, DOI10.1007/s00221-006-0482-y
  • Wolf, SL. Thompson, PA. Morris, DM. Rose,DK. Winstein,CJ. Taub, E. Giuliani, C.Pearson, SL. (2005). The EXCITE*trial attributes of the Wolf MotorFunction Test in patients withsubacutestroke. Neurorehabilitation Neural Repair,19(3),194-205
  • Rose, D. Winstein, C.J. (2005).Thecoordination of bimanual rapid aiming movements followingstroke.Clinical Rehabilitation, 19:1-11
  • Rose, D. Winstein, C.J. (2004).Bimanualtraining after stroke: Are two hands better thanone? Topics inStroke Rehabilitation, 11: (4),20-30
  • Boyd,LA, Winstein, C.J. (2004).Cerebellar strokeimpairs temporal but not spatial accuracy duringimplicit motorlearning. Neurorehabilitation and NeuralRepair, 18:134-143
  • Boyd, LA, Winstein, C.J. (2004).Providingexplicit information disrupts implicit motor learningafter basalganglia stroke. Learning and Memory,11:388-396
  • Winstein, C.J., Rose, D. Tan, S.,Lewthwaite,R., Chui, H.C., & Azen, S.P. (2004). A randomizedcontrolledcomparison of upper extremity rehabilitation strategiesin acutestroke: Immediate and longer-termoutcomes. Archives ofPhysical Medicine andRehabilitation, 85:620-628
  • Boyd, LA, Winstein, C.J. (2003). Impactofexplicit information on implicit motor-sequence learningfollowingmiddle cerebral artery stroke. PhysicalTherapy, 83:976-989
  • Winstein, CJ, Miller JP, Blanton S, MorrisD,Uswatte G, Taub E, Nichols D, Wolf S. (2003) Methods foramulti-site randomized trial to investigate the effectofconstraint-induced movement therapy in improving upperextremityfunction among adults recovering from a cerebrovascularstroke.Neuroehabilitation and Neural Repair. 17,137-152.
  • Esparza D.Y, Archambault P.S., WinsteinC.J.,Levin M.F. (2003) Hemispheric specialization in theco-ordinationof arm and trunk movements during pointing in patientswithunilateral brain damage. Experimental BrainResearch, 148,488-97
  • Boyd, L, Winstein, CJ, (2001).Implicitmotor-sequence learning in humans following unilateralstroke: theimpact of practice and explicitknowledge. NeuroscienceLetters, 298, 65-69
  • Fisher, BE, Winstein, CJ, & Velicki,MR.(2000, published online 29 February). Deficits incompensatorytrajectory adjustments after unilateral sensorimotorstroke.Experimental Brain Research. 132, 328-344
  • Velicki, M.R., Winstein, C.J., &Pohl,P.S. (2000). Impaired direction and extent specification ofaimedarm movements in humans with stroke-related braindamage.Experimental Brain Research, 130, 362-374.
  • Winstein, C.J., Horak, F.B, & Fisher,B.E.(2000). Influence of central set on anticipatory and triggeredgripforce adjustments. Experimental Brain Research,130,362-374.
  • Thorne, K.S., & Winstein,C.J. (1999).Human gravity-gradient noise ininterferometric gravitational-wavedetectors. PhysicalReview D60, 082001-11
  • Pohl, P.S., Winstein, C.J. (1999).Practiceeffects on the less affected upper extremity afterstroke.Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation,80,668-675
  • Winstein, C.J., Merians, A., & Sullivan,K.(1999). Motor learning after unilateral braindamage.Neuropsychologia, 37, 975-987.
  • Pohl, P.S., Winstein, C.J. (1998).Age-relatedeffects on temporal strategies to speed motorperformance.Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 6,1-17.
  • Pohl, P.S., Winstein, C.J., &Onla-or, S.(1997). Sensory-motor control in the ipsilesional upperextremityafter stroke. NeuroRehabilitation, 9,57-69.[Corringendum, NeuroRehabilitation, 9, 245-249]
  • Winstein, C.J., Grafton, S.T., Pohl,P.S.(1997).  Motor task difficulty and brain activity:Aninvestigation of goal-directed reciprocal aiming usingpositronemission tomography. Motor task difficulty and brainactivity: Aninvestigation of goal-directed reciprocal aiming usingpositronemission tomography. J Neurophysiology,77:1581-1594
  • Winstein, C.J., Pohl, P.S., Cardinale,C.,Green, A., Scholtz, L., Sauber-Waters, C. (1996). Learningapartial weight bearing skill: Effectiveness of two formsoffeedback. Physical Therapy, 76, 985-993.
  • Pohl, P.S., Winstein, C.J., Fisher,B.E.(1996). The locus of age-related movement slowing:Sensoryprocessing in continuous goal-directed aiming. JournalofGerontology: Psychological Sciences, 51B,P94-P102.
  • Winstein, C.J., Pohl, P.S. (1995). Effectsofunilateral brain damage on the control of hand aiming movementsinhumans. Experimental Brain Research, 105,163-174.
  • Winstein, C.J., Pohl, P.S., &Lewthwaite,R. (1994).  Effects of physical guidance andknowledge ofresults on motor learning: support for the guidancehypothesis.Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,45,316-323.
  • Winstein, C.J., Christensen, S., &Fitch,N. (1993). Effects of summary knowledge of results ontheacquisition and retention of partial weight bearing duringgait.Physical Therapy Practice, 2, 40-51.
  • Winstein, C.J., Abbs, J.H., Petashnick,D.(1991). Influences of object weight and instructions on gripforceadjustments. Experimental Brain Research,87,465-469.
  • Winstein, C.J. (1991).  Knowledgeofresults and motor learning: Implications for physicaltherapy.Physical Therapy, 71, 140-149.
  • Winstein, C.J., & Schmidt, R.A.(1990).Reduced frequency of knowledge of results enhances motorskilllearning. Journal of ExperimentalPsychology: Learning, Memory,and Cognition, 16,677-691.
  • Winstein, C.J., & Garfinkel, A.(1989).Qualitative dynamics of disordered human locomotion: Apreliminaryinvestigation. Journal of Motor Behavior,21,373‑391.
  • Winstein, C.J., Gardner, E.R., McNeal,D.R.,Barto, P.S., & Nicholson, D.E. (1989). Standingbalancetraining: Effect on balance and locomotion in hemipareticadults.Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation,70,755‑762.
  • Winstein, C.J. (1983). Neurogenicdysphagia:Frequency, progression and outcome in adults followinghead injury.Physical Therapy, 63, 1992‑1997.
  • Winstein, C.J. (1974). Acupuncture anditsapplication to physical therapy. Physical Therapy,54,1283‑1289.