Carolee J. Winstein, PhD, PT, FAPTA

Carolie Winstein Web Photo 2012

(323) 442-2903



Motor Behavior and Neurorehabilitation

Mailing Address:

1540 Alcazar St., CHP 155, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9006

Current Research:

Professional Interests
Dr. Winstein's teaching and research are focused in the areas of motor control and learning with particular emphasis on movement disorders, recovery, and rehabilitation of function/motor learning after neurological insult. Dr. Winstein is Director of the Motor Behavior and Neurorehabilitation Laboratory
  • Waisman Ctr., Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, Postdoctoral Fellow, Behavioral Neuroscience, 1989
  • Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA, Ph.D., Kinesiology, 1988
  • Univ. of Southern Calif., Los Angeles, CA, M.S., Physical Therapy, 1984
  • Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA, B.S./Certif. in Phys. Ther Physical Therapy, 1973
  • Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA, B.A., Kinesiology & Psychology, 1972
Selected Publications
  • Winstein CJ, Requejo PS,Zelinski EM, Mulroy SJ, Crimmins EM. (2012). A transformativesubfield in rehabilitation science at the nexus of newtechnologies, aging and disability. Frontiers inPsychology, Sept, 3: Article 340
  • Goh HT, Sullivan KJ, Gordon J, Wulf G, WinsteinCJ. (2012). Dual-task practice enhances motor learning: apreliminary investigation. Exp Brain Res. Aug 12.
  • Tan C, Tretriluxana J, Pitsch E, Runnarong N, WinsteinCJ. (2012). Anticipatory planning of functionalreach-to-grasp: A pilot study. Neurorehabilitation and NeuralRepair. Mar 20
  • Hidaka Y, Han CE, Wolf SL, Winstein CJ,Schweighofer N. (2012). Use it and improve it or lose it:Interactions between arm function and use in humans post-stroke.PLoS Comput Biol 8(2): e1002343.doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002343
  • Chen S, Wolf SL, Zhang Q, Thompson PA, WinsteinC., (2012). The minimal detectable change of the ActualAmount of Use Test and the Motor Activity Log: The EXCITE Trial.Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. Jan 24, [Epub aheadof print]
  • Kantak SS, Winstein CJ. (2012).Learning-performance distinction and memory processes for motorskills: A focused review and perspective. Behav Brain Res,Mar 1;228(1):219-31.
  • Kantak S, Sullivan KA, Fisher BE, Knowlton B, WinsteinC. (2011). Transfer of motor learning engages specificneural substrates during motor memory consolidation dependent onthe practice structure. Journal of Motor Behavior.Nov;43(6):499-507
  • Wade E, Winstein CJ. (2011). Virtual realityand robotics for stroke rehabilitation: Where do we go from here?Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation; 18(6):685-700.
  • Yeh S-C, McLaughlin M, Nam Y, Sanders S, Chang C, Kennedy B,Flynn S, Lange B, Li L, Chen S, Whitford M, WinsteinC, Jung Y, Rizzo A. (2011). Emotions andtelerehabilitation: Pilot clinical trials for virtualtelerehabilitation applications using haptic device and its impacton post stroke patients' mood and motivation. Lecture Notes inComputer Science, vol. 6774:119-128, Springer Heidelberg.
  • Mulroy S, Winstein C, Kulig K, Beneck G.J,Fowler E, DeMuth S, Sullivan K, Brown D, Christianne J Lane. (2011)Secondary Mediation and Regression Analyses of the PTClinResNetDatabase:  Determining Causal Relationships among Outcomesacross International Classification of Function Levels for FourPhysical Therapist Intervention Trials. Physical Therapy.91(12): 1766-1789
  • Schweighofer N, Lee J-Y, Goh H-T, Choi Y, Kim S, Stewart J,Lewthwaite R, Winstein CJ. (2011). Mechanisms ofthe contextual interference effect in individuals post-stroke.J. Neurophysiol. 106:2632-2641
  • Rizzo A, Requejo P, Winstein CJ, Lange B,Ragusa G, Merians A, Patton J, Banerjee P, Aisen M. (2011). Virtual realityapplications for addressing the needs of those aging withdisability.Stud Health Technol Inform.163:510-6.
  • Mulroy SJ, Thompson L, Kemp B, Hatchett PP, Newsam CJ, LupoldDG, Haubert LL, Eberly V, Ge TT, Azen SP, WinsteinCJ, Gordon J (2011); for the Physical Therapy ClinicalResearch Network (PTClinResNet). Strengtheningand Optimal Movements for Painful Shoulders (STOMPS) in ChronicSpinal Cord Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial.PhysTher. 2011 Mar;91(3):305-324. Epub 2011 Feb 3.
  • Kantak SS, Fisher BE, Sullivan KJ and WinsteinCJ. (2010) Effects of different doses of low frequencyrTMS on motor corticospinal excitability. Journal of Neurology andNeurophysiology - Open Access; www.omicsonline.orgdoi:10.4172/2155-9562.Volume 1• Issue 1•1000102
  • Wolf SL, Thompson PA, Winstein CJ, Miller JP,Blanton SR, Nichols-Larsen DS, Morris DM, Uswatte G, Taub E, LightKE, Sawaki L. (2010). The EXCITE stroke trial: comparing early anddelayed constraint-induced movement therapy. Stroke,10:2309-15.
  • Kantak SS, Sullivan KJ, Fisher BE, Knowlton BJ,Winstein CJ (2010). Neural substrates of motormemory consolidation depend on practice structure. NatureNeuroscience, published online July 10, 2010;doi:10.1038/nn.2596
  • Woodbury M, Velozo CA, Thompson PA, Light K, Uswatte G, Taub E,Winstein CJ, Morris D, Blanton S, Nichols-LarsenDS, Wolf SL. (2010). Measurement structure of the Wolf MotorFunction Test: Implications for motor control theory.Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 9: 791-801.
  • Lin CH, Winstein CJ, Fisher BE, Wu AD. (2010)NeuralCorrelates of the Contextual Interference Effect in Motor Learning:A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Investigation.J MotBehav. Jun 21. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Lange BS, Requejo P, Flynn SM, Rizzo AA, Valero-Cuevas FJ,Baker L, Winstein C (2010). The potential ofvirtual reality and gaming to assist successful aging withdisability.Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am.May;21(2):339-56.
  • Garrison KA, Winstein CJ, Aziz-Zadeh L (2010)The mirrorneuron system: a neural substrate for methods in strokerehabilitation.Neurorehabil Neural Repair.Jun;24(5):404-12.
  • Fowler EG, Knutson LM, Demuth SK, Siebert KL, Simms VD, SugiMH, Souza RB, Karim R, Azen SP (2010). Pediatricendurance and limb strengthening (PEDALS) for children withcerebral palsy using stationary cycling: a randomized controlledtrial.; Physical Therapy Clinical Research Network(PTClinResNet). Phys Therapy. Mar;90(3) :367-81. Epub 2010Jan 21.
  • Winstein CJ (2009). The best we canbe is yet to come.Phys Therapy. 2009 Nov;89(11):1236-49.
  • Schweighofer N, Han C, Wolf SL, Arbib M, WinsteinCJ. (2009). Understanding the functional threshold:Predictions from a Computational Model and Supporting Data from theExtremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation (EXCITE) Trial.Physical Therapy, 89(12), 1327-36.
  • Kulig K, Beneck GJ, Selkowitz DM, Popovich JM Jr., Ge TT,Flanagan SP, Poppert EM, Yamada K, Powers CM, Azen S,Winstein CJ, Gordon J, Samudrala S, Chen TC,Shamie N, Khoo L, Spoonamore MJ, Wang JC and Physical TherapyClinical Research Network (PTClinResNet). (2009). The effect of anintensive, progressive exercise program on functional performancein patients post single-level lumbar microdiscectomy. PhysicalTherapy, 89:1145-1157.
  • Ojha H, Kern R, Lin C-H, Winstein CJ. (2009).Age affects the attentional demands of stair ambulation: Evidencefrom a dual-task approach. Physical Therapy, 89:1080-8.
  • Tretriluxana J, Gordon J, Fisher BE, WinsteinCJ (2009). Hemisphere specific impairments inreach-to-grasp control after stroke: Effects of object size.Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 23: 679-91.
  • Matarić M, Tapus A, Winstein C, Eriksson J.(2009).Socially assistive robotics for stroke and mild TBIrehabilitation.Stud Health TechnolInform.145:249-62.
  • Lin CH, Fisher BE, Wu AD, Ko YA, Lee LY, WinsteinCJ. (2009) Neural correlate of the contextual interferenceeffect in motor learning: a kinematic analysis. J MotBehav. 41:232-42
  • Chen SY, Winstein CJ. (2009). A systematicreview of voluntary arm recovery in hemiparteic stroke: criticalpredictors for meaningful outcomes using the internationalclassification of functioning, disability, and health. J.Neurol Phys Ther, 33(1): 2-13.
  • Harvey RL, Winstein CJ; Everest Trial Group.(2009). Design for the Everest randomized trial of corticalstimulation and rehabilitation for arm function following stroke.Neurorehabil Neural Repair, Jan; 23(1):32-44.
  • Lin CH, Fisher BE, Winstein CJ, Wu AD, GordonJ. (2008) Contextual interference effect: elaborative processing orforgetting-reconstruction? A post hoc analysis of transcranialmagnetic stimulation-induced effects on motor learning. J MotorBehavior, 40(6):578-86
  • Park SW, Wolf SL, Blanton S, Winstein C,Nichols-Larsen DS. (2008). The EXCITE trial: Predicting aclinically meaningful motor activity log outcome.Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 22(5): 486-93.
  • Tretriluxana J, Gordon J, Winstein CJ. (2008).Manual asymmetries in grasp pre-shaping and transport-graspcoordination. Experimental Brain Res. 188(2): 305-15
  • Lin CH, Fisher B, Winstein CJ, Wu AD, Gordon J(2008). Contextual interference effect: elaborative-processing orforgetting-reconstruction? A post-hoc analysis of transcranialmagnetic stimulation-induced effects on motor learning. Journalof Motor Behavior, 40(6): 578-86
  • Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller PJ, Thompson PA,Taub E, Uswatte G, Morris D, Blanton S, Nichols-Larsen D, Clark PC.(2008, available online 12/17/07). Retention of upper limb functionin stroke survivors who have received constraint-induced movementtherapy: the EXCITE randomized trial. The LancetNeurology, 7(1): 33-40.
  • Onla-or P. & Winstein, CJ. (2008).Determining the optimal challenge point for motor skill learning inadults with moderately severe Parkinson's Disease.Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 22(4): 385-95.
  • Winstein C, Pate P, Ge T, Ervin C, Baurley J,Sullivan KJ, Underwood SJ, Fowler EG, Mulroy S, Brown DA, Kulig K,Gordon J, Azen SP & Physical Therapy Clinical Research Network.(2008) The Physical Therapy Clinical Research Network(PTClinResNet):  Methods, efficacy and benefits of arehabilitation research network.  American Journal ofPhysical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 87(11): 937-50
  • Sullivan KJ, Brown DA, Klassen T, Mulroy S, Ge T, Azen SP,Winstein CJ (2007). Effects oftask-specific locomotor and strength training in adults who wereambulatory after stroke: results of the STEPS randomized clinicaltrial.; Physical Therapy Clinical Research Network(PTClinResNet). Phys Therapy. 2007Dec;87(12):1580-602.
  • Wolf SL, Newton H, Maddy D, Blanton S, Zhang Q,Winstein CJ, Morris DM, Light K. (2007). TheExcite Trial: relationship of intensity of constraint inducedmovement therapy to improvement in the Wolf motor function test.Restor Neurol Neurosci., 25(5-6):549-62.
  • Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller JP, Blanton S,Clark PC, Nichols-Larsen D (2007). Looking in the rear view mirrorwhen conversing with back seat drivers: The EXCITE trial revisited.Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 21: 379-387.
  • Kaplon R., Prettyman M., Kushi C. Winstein C.J(2007). Six hours in the laboratory? A quantification of practicetime during Constraint-Induced Therapy (CIT). Clin Rehab.21(10): 950-958.
  • Winstein, CJ., Bentzen, KR., Boyd, L.,Schneider, LS. (2007). Does Donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor,benefit declarative and non-declarative processes in mild tomoderate Alzheimer's disease? Current Alzheimer Research,43: 273-6
  • Lin CH, Sullivan KJ, Wu AD, Kantak S, WinsteinCJ. (2007). Effect of task practice order on motor skilllearning in adults with Parkinson Disease: A pilot study. PhysTher., 87(9):1120-31
  • Stewart JC, Yeh SC, Jung Y, Yoon H, Whitford M, Chen SY, Li L,McLaughlin M, Rizzo A, Winstein CJ. (2007).Intervention to enhance skilled arm and hand movements afterstroke: A feasibility study using a new virtual reality system.J Neuroengineering Rehabil., 4: 21.
  • Boyd LA, Quaney BM, Pohl PS, Winstein CJ(2007). Learning implicitly: effects of task and severity afterstroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 21(5):444-54.
  • Dong Y, Winstein CJ, Albistegui-DuBois R,Dobkin BH. (2007). Evolution of fMRI activation in the perilesionalprimary motor cortex and cerebellum with rehabilitationtraining-related motor gains after stroke: A pilot study.Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 21:412-28. Epub 2007 Mar16
  • Koski L., Lin C-H, Wu A, Winstein CJ. (2007).Reliability of intracortical and corticomotor excitabilityestimates obtained from the upper extremities in chronic stroke.Neuroscience Research, 58(1):19-31.
  • Mataric MJ, Eriksson J,Feil-Seifer DJ, Winstein CJ. (2007). Sociallyassistive robotics for post-stroke rehabilitation. JNeuroEngineering and Rehab, 4:5doi:10.1186/1743-0003-4-5
  • Wolf SL, Winstein CJ, Miller JP, Taub E,Uswatte G, Morris D, Giuliani C, Light K, Nichols-Larsen D. (2006).Effect of Constraint Induced Movement Therapy on Upper ExtremityFunction 3-9 Months after Stroke: The EXCITE Randomized ClinicalTrial. JAMA, 296: 2095-2104
  • Uswatte G, Giuliani C, Winstein C, Zerinque A,Hobbs L, Wolf SL. (2006) Validity of accelerometry for monitoringreal-world arm activity in patients with subacute stroke: Evidencefrom the extremity constraint-induced therapy evaluation trial.Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 87:1340-5
  • Boyd LA, Winstein CJ. (2006). Explicitinformation interferes with implicit motor learning of bothdiscrete and continuous movement tasks after stroke. JNPT,30: 46-57.
  • Dong Y, Dobkin BH, Cen SY, Wu AD, Winstein CJ.(2006) Motor cortex activation during treatment may predicttherapeutic gains in paretic hand function after stroke.Stroke, 37:1552-1555
  • Fisher BE, Boyd L, Winstein CJ (2006).Contralateral cerebellar damage impairs imperative planning but notupdating of aimed arm movements in humans. Exp Brain Res,174, 453-66, DOI 10.1007/s00221-006-0482-y
  • Wolf, SL. Thompson, PA. Morris, DM. Rose, DK. Winstein,CJ. Taub, E. Giuliani, C. Pearson, SL. (2005). The EXCITE*trial attributes of the Wolf Motor Function Test in patients withsubacute stroke. Neurorehabilitation Neural Repair, 19(3),194-205
  • Rose, D. Winstein, C.J. (2005). Thecoordination of bimanual rapid aiming movements following stroke.Clinical Rehabilitation, 19:1-11
  • Rose, D. Winstein, C.J. (2004). Bimanualtraining after stroke: Are two hands better than one? Topics inStroke Rehabilitation, 11: (4), 20-30
  • Boyd, LA, Winstein, C.J. (2004).Cerebellar stroke impairs temporal but not spatial accuracy duringimplicit motor learning. Neurorehabilitation and NeuralRepair, 18: 134-143
  • Boyd, LA, Winstein, C.J. (2004). Providingexplicit information disrupts implicit motor learning after basalganglia stroke. Learning and Memory, 11:388-396
  • Winstein, C.J., Rose, D. Tan, S., Lewthwaite,R., Chui, H.C., & Azen, S.P. (2004). A randomized controlledcomparison of upper extremity rehabilitation strategies in acutestroke: Immediate and longer-term outcomes. Archives ofPhysical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85:620-628
  • Boyd, LA, Winstein, C.J. (2003). Impact ofexplicit information on implicit motor-sequence learning followingmiddle cerebral artery stroke. Physical Therapy, 83:976-989
  • Winstein, CJ, Miller JP, Blanton S, Morris D,Uswatte G, Taub E, Nichols D, Wolf S. (2003) Methods for amulti-site randomized trial to investigate the effect ofconstraint-induced movement therapy in improving upper extremityfunction among adults recovering from a cerebrovascular stroke.Neuroehabilitation and Neural Repair. 17, 137-152.
  • Esparza D.Y, Archambault P.S., Winstein C.J.,Levin M.F. (2003) Hemispheric specialization in the co-ordinationof arm and trunk movements during pointing in patients withunilateral brain damage. Experimental Brain Research, 148,488-97
  • Boyd, L, Winstein, CJ, (2001). Implicitmotor-sequence learning in humans following unilateral stroke: theimpact of practice and explicit knowledge. NeuroscienceLetters, 298, 65-69
  • Fisher, BE, Winstein, CJ, & Velicki, MR.(2000, published online 29 February). Deficits in compensatorytrajectory adjustments after unilateral sensorimotor stroke.Experimental Brain Research. 132, 328-344
  • Velicki, M.R., Winstein, C.J., & Pohl,P.S. (2000). Impaired direction and extent specification of aimedarm movements in humans with stroke-related brain damage.Experimental Brain Research, 130, 362-374.
  • Winstein, C.J., Horak, F.B, & Fisher, B.E.(2000). Influence of central set on anticipatory and triggered gripforce adjustments. Experimental Brain Research, 130,362-374.
  • Thorne, K.S., & Winstein, C.J. (1999).Human gravity-gradient noise in interferometric gravitational-wavedetectors. Physical Review D, 60, 082001-11
  • Pohl, P.S., Winstein, C.J. (1999). Practiceeffects on the less affected upper extremity after stroke.Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80,668-675
  • Winstein, C.J., Merians, A., & Sullivan,K. (1999). Motor learning after unilateral brain damage.Neuropsychologia, 37, 975-987.
  • Pohl, P.S., Winstein, C.J. (1998). Age-relatedeffects on temporal strategies to speed motor performance.Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 6, 1-17.
  • Pohl, P.S., Winstein, C.J., & Onla-or, S.(1997). Sensory-motor control in the ipsilesional upper extremityafter stroke. NeuroRehabilitation, 9, 57-69.[Corringendum, NeuroRehabilitation, 9, 245-249]
  • Winstein, C.J., Grafton, S.T., Pohl, P.S.(1997).  Motor task difficulty and brain activity: Aninvestigation of goal-directed reciprocal aiming using positronemission tomography. Motor task difficulty and brain activity: Aninvestigation of goal-directed reciprocal aiming using positronemission tomography. J Neurophysiology, 77:1581-1594
  • Winstein, C.J., Pohl, P.S., Cardinale, C.,Green, A., Scholtz, L., Sauber-Waters, C. (1996). Learning apartial weight bearing skill: Effectiveness of two forms offeedback. Physical Therapy, 76, 985-993.
  • Pohl, P.S., Winstein, C.J., Fisher, B.E.(1996). The locus of age-related movement slowing: Sensoryprocessing in continuous goal-directed aiming. Journal ofGerontology: Psychological Sciences, 51B, P94-P102.
  • Winstein, C.J., Pohl, P.S. (1995). Effects ofunilateral brain damage on the control of hand aiming movements inhumans. Experimental Brain Research, 105, 163-174.
  • Winstein, C.J., Pohl, P.S., & Lewthwaite,R. (1994).  Effects of physical guidance and knowledge ofresults on motor learning: support for the guidance hypothesis.Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 45,316-323.
  • Winstein, C.J., Christensen, S., & Fitch,N. (1993). Effects of summary knowledge of results on theacquisition and retention of partial weight bearing during gait.Physical Therapy Practice, 2, 40-51.
  • Winstein, C.J., Abbs, J.H., Petashnick, D.(1991). Influences of object weight and instructions on grip forceadjustments. Experimental Brain Research, 87,465-469.
  • Winstein, C.J. (1991).  Knowledge ofresults and motor learning: Implications for physical therapy.Physical Therapy, 71, 140-149.
  • Winstein, C.J., & Schmidt, R.A. (1990).Reduced frequency of knowledge of results enhances motor skilllearning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory,and Cognition, 16, 677-691.
  • Winstein, C.J., & Garfinkel, A. (1989).Qualitative dynamics of disordered human locomotion: A preliminaryinvestigation. Journal of Motor Behavior, 21,373‑391.
  • Winstein, C.J., Gardner, E.R., McNeal, D.R.,Barto, P.S., & Nicholson, D.E. (1989). Standing balancetraining: Effect on balance and locomotion in hemiparetic adults.Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 70,755‑762.
  • Winstein, C.J. (1983). Neurogenic dysphagia:Frequency, progression and outcome in adults following head injury.Physical Therapy, 63, 1992‑1997.
  • Winstein, C.J. (1974). Acupuncture and itsapplication to physical therapy. Physical Therapy, 54,1283‑1289.